“Understanding Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment”

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, an enduring metabolic ailment, rears its ugly head when the body develops an unfortunate resistance to the insulin’s impactful effects, or when the pancreas fails to generate enough insulin to keep those blood sugar levels in check. Insulin, an indispensable hormone, works tirelessly to maintain glucose levels, smoothly ushering the glucose molecules, which are the building blocks of energy, into the cells. However, when insulin resistance or an insulin deficit takes hold, the glucose molecules remain trapped in the bloodstream, ruthlessly spiking the blood sugar levels.

Blood Sugar Range

The normal range of blood sugar is subject to fluctuations depending on numerous factors, including, but not limited to, age, physical well-being, and the presence of diabetes. Nevertheless, below are some general instructions for normal blood sugar levels:

1. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) level: The normative range should fall between the range of 70-99 mg/dL (3.9-5.5 mmol/L).

2. Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) level: The normative range should be less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) for up to two hours after consumption.

3. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level: The normative range should not exceed 5.7%. HbA1c is a diagnostic indicator of the average blood sugar levels over a period of two to three months.

It is crucial to bear in mind that these are general guidelines, which might fluctuate based on personal factors. Individuals with diabetes may necessitate different target blood sugar ranges contingent on their age, medical state, and other factors. Consequently, collaborating with a qualified healthcare provider to develop an individualized diabetes management plan and determine blood sugar targets is of utmost importance.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes:

The root causes of type 2 diabetes are complex and multifaceted, encompassing a range of interrelated factors. Insulin resistance, which transpires when the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, is the principal underlying cause. This results in a decreased ability to use glucose for energy and an increase in blood glucose levels.

Several common risk factors can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. These include:

1. Obesity: Being overweight or obese is a significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Excessive body fat, especially around the waist, may exacerbate insulin resistance.

2. Physical inactivity: A dearth of routine physical activity may lead to weight gain and raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

3. Genetics: A family history augments the risk of developing the ailment.

4. Age: The risk of developing type 2 diabetes escalates as individuals age, particularly after the age of 45.

5. Ethnicity: Certain ethnic groups, including African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, have a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

6. Gestational diabetes: Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.

7. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Women with PCOS have an elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Other factors that may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes include high blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels, and a history of cardiovascular disease.

Symptoms :

The development of type 2 diabetes can be slow and insidious, with some individuals being asymptomatic. However, certain symptoms are commonly associated with type 2 diabetes, including:

1. Polydipsia: Increased thirst is often present due to the body’s attempt to eliminate excess glucose in the blood by increasing urine production, resulting in dehydration and elevated thirst levels.

2. Polyuria: Increased urination occurs when the kidneys work overtime to eliminate excess glucose from the blood.

3. Fatigue: When cells don’t receive adequate glucose for energy, it can lead to fatigue and weakness.

4. Visual impairment: High blood sugar levels can affect the shape of the eye’s lens, causing blurred vision.

5. Delayed wound healing: Elevated blood sugar levels can impede the body’s ability to heal wounds, resulting in delayed wound healing.

6. Paraesthesia: High blood sugar levels can inflict nerve damage, resulting in numbness or tingling sensations in the hands or feet.

Occasionally, type 2 diabetes can develop without any symptoms, or the symptoms may be so mild that they are overlooked. Being mindful of the risk factors associated and scheduling regular check-ups with a healthcare provider, especially if there is a family history of the condition or increased risk, is essential.

Treatment :

The management of type 2 diabetes requires a multifaceted approach involving lifestyle changes, medications, and monitoring to regulate blood sugar levels and minimize the risk of complications. Here are some of the common approaches :

1. Lifestyle interventions: These include maintaining a healthy weight, consuming a well-balanced diet, engaging in regular physical activity, and quitting smoking. Modest weight loss and physical activity can greatly improve glycaemic control.

2. Oral hypoglycaemic agents: Various classes of medications can be used to manage blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes, including biguanides, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors. The selection of medication(s) depends on individual factors, such as age, overall health, and other medical conditions.

3. Insulin therapy: In some situations, insulin injections may be required to manage blood glucose levels. Insulin can be administered alone or in combination with oral medications.

4. Monitoring: Consistent monitoring of blood glucose levels is crucial to ensure that treatment is effective. This may involve self-monitoring at home using a glucometer or continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

5. Regular check-ups: Regular visits with a healthcare provider are necessary to monitor blood glucose control, screen for complications, and modify treatment as required.

It is important to note that the management of type 2 diabetes is highly personalized, and the approach will vary based on several factors, including age, general health, and personal preferences. With adequate treatment and management, many individuals can lead healthy and active lives.


Type 2 diabetes, a metabolic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide, is associated with a plethora of complications that can lead to serious health issues if left unmanaged. The condition can cause damage to blood vessels and organs due to persistent high blood sugar levels. Some of the common complications that can occur are:

1. cardiovascular disease: Persistent high blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels, increasing the risk of cardiovascular problems like heart attack, stroke, and other heart diseases.

2. Kidney damage: The small blood vessels in the kidneys can be damaged by diabetes, causing kidney disease that can lead to kidney failure in severe cases.

3. Nerve damage: Nerves throughout the body can be affected by high blood sugar levels, causing issues like numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.

4. Eye damage: Diabetes can harm the blood vessels in the retina, leading to diabetic retinopathy and even vision loss in severe cases.

5. Foot damage: Foot problems can result from nerve damage and poor circulation, including infections, ulcers, and, in extreme cases, amputation.

6. Skin and mouth infections: Diabetes can raise the risk of bacterial and fungal infections in the skin and mouth.

7. Alzheimer’s disease: Some studies suggest that type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia.

Effective management of type 2 diabetes can help lessen the risk of developing these complications. This includes keeping blood sugar levels under control, maintaining a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and adhering to prescribed medication regimens. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are also critical for overseeing and managing diabetes and its associated complications.                                                                                       

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